Tooth decay is damage to a tooth's surface, or enamel. It happens when bacteria in your mouth make acids that attack the enamel. Tooth decay can lead to cavities (dental caries), which are holes in your teeth. If tooth decay is not treated, it can cause pain, infection, and even tooth loss.
Our mouths are full of bacteria. Some bacteria are helpful. But some can be harmful, including the ones that play a role in tooth decay. These bacteria combine with food to form a soft, sticky film called plaque. The bacteria in plaque use the sugar and starch in what you eat and drink to make acids. The acids begin to eat away at the minerals on your enamel. Over time, the plaque can harden into tartar. Besides damaging your teeth, plaque and tartar can also irritate your gums and cause gum disease.
You get fluoride from toothpaste, water, and other sources. This fluoride, along with your salvia, helps the enamel repair itself by replacing the minerals. Your teeth go through this natural process of losing minerals and regaining minerals all day long. But if you don't take care of your teeth and/or you eat and drink lots of sugary or starchy things, your enamel will keep losing minerals. This leads to tooth decay.
A white spot may appear where minerals have been lost. This is an early sign of tooth decay. You may be able to stop or reverse the decay at this point. Your enamel can still repair itself, if you take better care of your teeth and limit sugary/starchy foods and drinks.
But if the tooth decay process continues, more minerals are lost. Over time, the enamel is weakened and destroyed, forming a cavity. A cavity is a hole in your tooth. It is permanent damage that a dentist has to repair with a filling.
Dentists usually find tooth decay and cavities by looking at your teeth and probing them with dental instruments. Your dentist will also ask if you have any symptoms. Sometimes you may need a dental x-ray.
Even babies can get tooth decay. Putting a baby to sleep with a bottle can harm a baby's teeth. Sugars from juice, formula, or milk that stay on a baby's teeth for hours can eat away at the enamel (the layer of the tooth that protects against tooth decay). This can lead to \"bottle mouth\" or \"baby bottle tooth decay.\" When this happens, the front teeth can get discolored, pocked, and pitted. Cavities might form and, in severe cases, the decayed teeth might need to be pulled.
As your child's permanent teeth grow in, the dentist can help prevent decay by applying a thin wash of resin (called a sealant) to the back teeth, where most chewing is done. This protective coating keeps bacteria from settling in the hard-to-reach crevices of the molars. But make sure that kids know that sealants aren't a replacement for good brushing and regular flossing.
If you are prone to tooth decay or gum disease, your kids might be at higher risk as well. So sometimes even the best brushing and flossing habits can't prevent a cavity. Be sure to call your dentist if your child complains of tooth pain, which could be a sign of a cavity that needs treatment.
But in cases of fracture, extensive decay, or malformation of baby teeth, dentists often opt for stainless steel or ceramic crowns. Crowns maintain the tooth while preventing the decay from spreading.
RCRA states that \"solid waste\" means any garbage or refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities. Nearly everything we do leaves behind some kind of waste.
The blowfly is a fairly large, metallic green, gray, blue, bronze, or black fly. They may spend the winter in homes or other protected sites, but will not reproduce during this time. Blowflies breed most commonly on decayed carcasses (e.g., dead squirrels, rodents, birds) and in droppings of dogs or other pets during the summer; thus, removal of these sources is imperative. Small animals, on occasion, may die inside walls or under the crawl space of a house. A week or two later, blowflies or maggots may appear. The adult blowfly is also attracted to gas leaks.
Differentiating the ant from the dark brown or black termite reproductives can be accomplished by noting the respective wings and body shape. MPMH  states that a termite has four wings of about equal length and that the wings are nearly twice as long as the body. By comparison, ant wings that are only a little longer than the body and the hind pair is much shorter than the front. Additionally, ants typically have a narrow waist, with the abdomen connected to the thorax by a thin petiole. Termites do not have a narrow or pinched waist. Figure 4.20 demonstrates the differences between the ant (A) and termite (B). Entomologists refer to winged ants and termites as alates.
MPMH  states there are five families of termites found in the world, with four of them occurring in the United States. The families in the United States are Hodotermitidae (rotten-wood termites), Kalotermitidae (dry-wood termites), Rhinotermitidae (subterranean termites) and Termitidae (desert termites). Subterranean termites typically work in wood aboveground, but must have direct contact with the ground to obtain moisture. Nonsubterranean termites colonize above the ground and feed on cellulose; however, their life cycles and methods of attack, and consequently methods of control, are quite different. Nonsubterranean termites in the United States are commonly called drywood termites.
The risk for encountering subterranean termites in the United States is greater in the southeastern states and in southwestern California. In the United States, the risk for termite infestations tends to decrease as the latitude increases northward.
Figure 4.22 portrays the geographic risk of subterranean termites in the United States. Subterranean termites are found in all states except Alaska and are most abundant in the south and southeastern United States .
There are many species of fire ants in the United States. The most important are four species in the genus Solenopsis. Of these, the number one fire ant pest is the red imported fire ant (RIFA) Solenopsis invicta (Figure 4.25). This ant was imported inadvertently from South America in the 1930s through the port of Mobile, Alabama. RIFAs are now found in more than 275 million acres in 11 southern states and Puerto Rico. The second most important species is the black imported fire ant, S. richteri, which was introduced into the United States in the 1920s from Argentina or Uruguay. It is currently limited in distribution to a small area of northern Mississippi and Alabama. There are two native species of fire ants: the tropical or native fire ant, S. geminata, ranging from South Carolina to Florida and west to Texas; and the Southern fire ant, S. xyloni, which occurs from North Carolina south to northern Florida, along the Gulf Coast, and west to California. The most important extension of the RIFA range is thought to have occurred during the 1950s housing boom as a result of the transportation of sod and nursery plants (Figure 4.26).
Several commercially available insecticides can be effective in controlling larval and adult mosquitoes. These chemicals are considered sufficiently safe for use by the public. Select a product whose label states that the material is effective against mosquito larvae or adults. For safe and effective use, read the label and follow the instructions for applying the material. The label lists those insects that the EPA agrees are effectively controlled by the product. 153554b96e